The information on this website has not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration or any other medical body. We do not aim to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness or disease. Information is shared for educational purposes only. You must consult your doctor before acting on any content on this website, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition.

Intrigued by old scientific results & many positive anecdotes since, I experimented with microdosing LSD - taking doses ~10μg, far below the level at which it causes its famous effects. At this level, the anecdotes claim the usual broad spectrum of positive effects on mood, depression, ability to do work, etc. After researching the matter a bit, I discovered that as far as I could tell, since the original experiment in the 1960s, no one had ever done a blind or even a randomized self-experiment on it.
Caffeine + L-Theanine: Since caffeine can produce unwanted side effects in high amounts (such as jitteriness and headaches), most people, and especially “slow caffeine oxidizers” find that by adding L-Theanine to a caffeine source such as coffee, any negative side effects of caffeine can be controlled. Caffeine and L-Theanine in combination have been researched and proven to boost concentration, attention, and energy while reducing anxiety. For this stack, use a ratio of four parts L-Theanine to one part caffeine, such as 400 milligrams of L-Theanine along with 100 milligrams of caffeine. You may want to start out with a smaller dose such as 200 milligrams of L-Theanine and 50 milligrams of caffeine and work your way up to find the best dose for you (the average cup of coffee has about 100mg of caffeine).
Taking these drugs without a doctor’s supervision can be dangerous. There are interactions and contraindications that can cause serious problems. These drugs should not be used if you drink alcohol or take an antidepressant. (50) The possibility of adverse drug reactions should not be taken lightly. By some calculations, adverse drug reactions are now the fourth leading cause of death in the US. (51)

I decided to try out day-time usage on 2 consecutive days, taking the 100mg at noon or 1 PM. On both days, I thought I did feel more energetic but nothing extraordinary (maybe not even as strong as the nicotine), and I had trouble falling asleep on Halloween, thinking about the meta-ethics essay I had been writing diligently on both days. Not a good use compared to staying up a night.
Back home, I contacted Aubrey Marcus, whose company Onnit Labs produces Alpha Brain. He attributed my lucid dreaming to increased levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which enhances REM dreaming. Alpha Brain has two ingredients that boost acetylcholine levels: GPC choline, which the body converts to acetylcholine, and Huperzine A, an alkaloid derived from Chinese club moss, also known as Huperzia serrata. "Huperzine A disarms the enzyme that naturally breaks down acetylcholine," Marcus said. "So while the GPC choline is being converted to acetylcholine, the Huperzine A is keeping it from disappearing. It's like plugging the drain and turning on the faucet."
Mosconi uses a pragmatic approach to improve your diet for brain health. The book is divided in three parts. The first one provides information regarding the brain nutritional requirement. The second one teaches you how to eat better. And, the third part tests you to find out where you are in terms of feeding yourself well. This includes an 80 question test that grades you as either Beginner/Intermediate/Advanced. “Beginner” entails you have little food awareness. You eat a lot of processed food. “Advanced” entails you eat very healthily, mainly organic foods. And, “Intermediate” falls in between.

However, anthropology suggests that paleolithic diets were dependent of where people lived. Close to shores, they ate more fish; within the forest they ate plants; in areas with herbivores they ate more meat. Also, humans ate grains millions of years before the agricultural revolution. And, we can digest those just fine because of an enzyme earmarked to digest grains (amylase). So, paleolithic diets were as varied as they are today.
1. Stough, C., Lloyd, J., Clarke, J., Downey, L. A., Hutchison, C. W., Rodgers, T., & Nathan, P. J. (2001). The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 156(4), 481-484. 2. Ishaque, S., Shamseer, L., Bukutu, C., & Vohra, S. (2012). Rhodiola rosea for physical and mental fatigue: a systematic review. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 12(1), 70. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-703. Pase, M. P., Kean, J., Sarris, J., Neale, C., Scholey, A. B., & Stough, C. (2012). The cognitive-enhancing effects of Bacopa monnieri: a systematic review of randomized, controlled human clinical trials. J Altern Complement Med, 18(7), 647-652. doi:10.1089/acm.2011.03674. Raghav, S., Singh, H., Dalal, P. K., Srivastava, J. S., & Asthana, O. P. (2006). Randomized controlled trial of standardized Bacopa monniera extract in age-associated memory impairment. Indian J Psychiatry, 48(4), 238-242. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.315555. Neale, C., Camfield, D., Reay, J., Stough, C., & Scholey, A. (2013). Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa [...]: a review and comparison of effect sizes. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 75(3), 728-737. doi:10.1111/bcp.120026. Prynne, C. J., Thane, C. W., Prentice, A., & Wadsworth, M. E. (2005). Intake and sources of phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) in 4-year-old British children: comparison between 1950 and the 1990s. Public Health Nutr, 8(2), 171-180.7. Ferland, G. (2012). Vitamin K and the nervous system: an overview of its actions. Adv Nutr, 3(2), 204-212. doi:10.3945/an.111.0017848. Zeidan, Y. H., & Hannun, Y. A. (2007). Translational aspects of sphingolipid metabolism. Trends in molecular medicine, 13(8), 327-336.9. Beulens, J. W., Bots, M. L., Atsma, F., Bartelink, M. L., Prokop, M., Geleijnse, J. M., . . . van der Schouw, Y. T. (2009). High dietary menaquinone intake is associated with reduced coronary calcification. Atherosclerosis, 203(2), 489-493. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.07.01010. Geleijnse, J. M., Vermeer, C., Grobbee, D. E., Schurgers, L. J., Knapen, M. H., van der Meer, I. M., . . . Witteman, J. C. (2004). Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study. J Nutr, 134(11), 3100-3105.11. Theuwissen, E., Magdeleyns, E. J., Braam, L. A., Teunissen, K. J., Knapen, M. H., Binnekamp, I. A., . . . Vermeer, C. (2014). Vitamin K status in healthy volunteers. Food Funct, 5(2), 229-234. doi:10.1039/c3fo60464k12. Barros, M. P., Poppe, S. C., & Bondan, E. F. (2014). Neuroprotective properties of the marine carotenoid astaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids, and perspectives for the natural combination of both in krill oil. Nutrients, 6(3), 1293-1317.13. Pashkow, F. J., Watumull, D. G., & Campbell, C. L. (2008). Astaxanthin: a novel potential treatment for oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol, 101(10a), 58d-68d. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.02.01014. Annweiler, C., Schott, A. M., Berrut, G., Chauvire, V., Le Gall, D., Inzitari, M., & Beauchet, O. (2010). Vitamin D and ageing: neurological issues. Neuropsychobiology, 62(3), 139-150. doi:10.1159/00031857015. Brown, J., Bianco, J. I., McGrath, J. J., & Eyles, D. W. (2003). 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces nerve growth factor, promotes neurite outgrowth and inhibits mitosis in embryonic rat hippocampal neurons. Neurosci Lett, 343(2), 139-143.16. Naveilhan, P., Neveu, I., Wion, D., & Brachet, P. (1996). 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3, an inducer of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Neuroreport, 7(13), 2171-2175.17. Tangpricha, V., Pearce, E. N., Chen, T. C., & Holick, M. F. (2002). Vitamin D insufficiency among free-living healthy young adults. Am J Med, 112(8), 659-662.18. Annweiler, C., Allali, G., Allain, P., Bridenbaugh, S., Schott, A. M., Kressig, R. W., & Beauchet, O. (2009). Vitamin D and cognitive performance in adults: a systematic review. European Journal of Neurology, 16(10), 1083-1089. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02755.x19. Annweiler, C., Montero-Odasso, M., Llewellyn, D. J., Richard-Devantoy, S., Duque, G., & Beauchet, O. (2013). Meta-analysis of memory and executive dysfunctions in relation to vitamin D. J Alzheimers Dis, 37(1), 147-171. doi:10.3233/jad-13045220. Balion, C., Griffith, L. E., Strifler, L., Henderson, M., Patterson, C., Heckman, G., . . . Raina, P. (2012). Vitamin D, cognition, and dementia A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurology, 79(13), 1397-1405.21. Dean, A. J., Bellgrove, M. A., Hall, T., Phan, W. M. J., Eyles, D. W., Kvaskoff, D., & McGrath, J. J. (2011). Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Cognitive and Emotional Functioning in Young Adults – A Randomised Controlled Trial. PLoS One, 6(11), e25966. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.002596622. Etgen, T., Sander, D., Bickel, H., Sander, K., & Forstl, H. (2012). Vitamin D deficiency, cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord, 33(5), 297-305. doi:10.1159/00033970223. Fontani, G., Corradeschi, F., Felici, A., Alfatti, F., Migliorini, S., & Lodi, L. (2005). Cognitive and physiological effects of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Invest, 35(11), 691-699. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2362.2005.01570.x24. Huhn, S., Masouleh, S. K., Stumvoll, M., Villringer, A., & Witte, A. V. (2015). Components of a Mediterranean diet and their impact on cognitive functions in aging. Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 7.25. Bradbury, J. (2011). Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA): An Ancient Nutrient for the Modern Human Brain. Nutrients, 3(5), 529-554. doi:10.3390/nu305052926. Einother, S. J., & Giesbrecht, T. (2013). Caffeine as an attention enhancer: reviewing existing assumptions. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 225(2), 251-274. doi:10.1007/s00213-012-2917-427. Johnson, L. C., Spinweber, C. L., & Gomez, S. A. (1990). Benzodiazepines and caffeine: effect on daytime sleepiness, performance, and mood. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 101(2), 160-167. 28. Smith, A., Kendrick, A., Maben, A., & Salmon, J. (1994). Effects of breakfast and caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and cardiovascular functioning. Appetite, 22(1), 39-55. doi:10.1006/appe.1994.100429. Smith, A. P., Kendrick, A. M., & Maben, A. L. (1992). Effects of breakfast and caffeine on performance and mood in the late morning and after lunch. Neuropsychobiology, 26(4), 198-204. doi:11892030. Smith, B. D., Davidson, R. A., & Green, R. L. (1993). Effects of caffeine and gender on physiology and performance: further tests of a biobehavioral model. Physiol Behav, 54(3), 415-422. 31. Warburton, D. M. (1995). Effects of caffeine on cognition and mood without caffeine abstinence. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 119(1), 66-70. 32. Wilhelmus, M. M., Hay, J. L., Zuiker, R. G., Okkerse, P., Perdrieu, C., Sauser, J., . . . Silber, B. Y. (2017). Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects. J Psychopharmacol, 31(2), 222-232. doi:10.1177/026988111666859333. Fredholm, B. B., Battig, K., Holmen, J., Nehlig, A., & Zvartau, E. E. (1999). Actions of caffeine in the brain with special reference to factors that contribute to its widespread use. Pharmacol Rev, 51(1), 83-133. 34. Borzelleca, J. F., Peters, D., & Hall, W. (2006). A 13-week dietary toxicity and toxicokinetic study with l-theanine in rats. Food Chem Toxicol, 44(7), 1158-1166. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2006.03.01435. Kimura, K., Ozeki, M., Juneja, L. R., & Ohira, H. (2007). L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses. Biol Psychol, 74(1), 39-45. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.06.00636. Tian, X., Sun, L., Gou, L., Ling, X., Feng, Y., Wang, L., . . . Liu, Y. (2013). Protective effect of l-theanine on chronic restraint stress-induced cognitive impairments in mice. Brain Res, 1503, 24-32. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2013.01.04837. Unno, K., Fujitani, K., Takamori, N., Takabayashi, F., Maeda, K., Miyazaki, H., . . . Hoshino, M. (2011). Theanine intake improves the shortened lifespan, cognitive dysfunction and behavioural depression that are induced by chronic psychosocial stress in mice. Free Radic Res, 45(8), 966-974. doi:10.3109/10715762.2011.56686938. Unno, K., Tanida, N., Ishii, N., Yamamoto, H., Iguchi, K., Hoshino, M., . . . Yamada, H. (2013). Anti-stress effect of theanine on students during pharmacy practice: positive correlation among salivary alpha-amylase activity, trait anxiety and subjective stress. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 111, 128-135. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2013.09.00439. Dodd, F. L., Kennedy, D. O., Riby, L. M., & Haskell-Ramsay, C. F. (2015a). A double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of caffeine and L-theanine both alone and in combination on cerebral blood flow, cognition and mood. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 232(14), 2563-2576. doi:10.1007/s00213-015-3895-040. Rogers, P. J., Smith, J. E., Heatherley, S. V., & Pleydell-Pearce, C. W. (2008). Time for tea: mood, blood pressure and cognitive performance effects of caffeine and theanine administered alone and together. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 195(4), 569-577. doi:10.1007/s00213-007-0938-141. Foxe, J. J., Morie, K. P., Laud, P. J., Rowson, M. J., de Bruin, E. A., & Kelly, S. P. (2012). Assessing the effects of caffeine and theanine on the maintenance of vigilance during a sustained attention task. Neuropharmacology, 62(7), 2320-2327. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.01.02042. Giesbrecht, T., Rycroft, J. A., Rowson, M. J., & De Bruin, E. A. (2010). The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness. Nutr Neurosci, 13(6), 283-290. doi:10.1179/147683010x1261146076484043. Haskell, C. F., Kennedy, D. O., Milne, A. L., Wesnes, K. A., & Scholey, A. B. (2008). The effects of L-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood. Biol Psychol, 77(2), 113-122. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.09.00844. Kahathuduwa, C. N., Dassanayake, T. L., Amarakoon, A. M., & Weerasinghe, V. S. (2016). Acute effects of theanine, caffeine and theanine-caffeine combination on attention. Nutr Neurosci. doi:10.1080/1028415x.2016.114484545. Owen, G. N., Parnell, H., De Bruin, E. A., & Rycroft, J. A. (2008). The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood. Nutr Neurosci, 11(4), 193-198. doi:10.1179/147683008x30151346. Einother, S. J., Martens, V. E., Rycroft, J. A., & De Bruin, E. A. (2010). L-theanine and caffeine improve task switching but not intersensory attention or subjective alertness. Appetite, 54(2), 406-409. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2010.01.00347. Deijen, J. B., van der Beek, E. J., Orlebeke, J. F., & van den Berg, H. (1992). Vitamin B-6 supplementation in elderly men: effects on mood, memory, performance and mental effort. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 109(4), 489-496.48. Lewerin, C., Matousek, M., Steen, G., Johansson, B., Steen, B., & Nilsson-Ehle, H. (2005). Significant correlations of plasma homocysteine and serum methylmalonic acid with movement and cognitive performance in elderly subjects but no improvement from short-term vitamin therapy: a placebo-controlled randomized study. Am J Clin Nutr, 81(5), 1155-1162. 49. Bryan, J., Calvaresi, E., & Hughes, D. (2002). Short-term folate, vitamin B-12 or vitamin B-6 supplementation slightly affects memory performance but not mood in women of various ages. J Nutr, 132(6), 1345-1356. 50. Schneider, Z., & Stroinski, A. (1987). Comprehensive B12: chemistry, biochemistry, nutrition, ecology, medicine: Walter de Gruyter.51. Polich, J., & Gloria, R. (2001). Cognitive effects of a Ginkgo biloba/vinpocetine compound in normal adults: systematic assessment of perception, attention and memory. Hum Psychopharmacol, 16(5), 409-416. doi:10.1002/hup.30852. Subhan, Z., & Hindmarch, I. (1985). Psychopharmacological effects of vinpocetine in normal healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 28(5), 567-571. 53. Dollins, A. B., Krock, L. P., Storm, W. F., Wurtman, R. J., & Lieberman, H. R. (1995). L-tyrosine ameliorates some effects of lower body negative pressure stress. Physiol Behav, 57(2), 223-230. 54. Shurtleff, D., Thomas, J. R., Schrot, J., Kowalski, K., & Harford, R. (1994). Tyrosine reverses a cold-induced working memory deficit in humans. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 47(4), 935-941. 55. Brzezinski, A., Vangel, M. G., Wurtman, R. J., Norrie, G., Zhdanova, I., Ben-Shushan, A., & Ford, I. (2005). Effects of exogenous melatonin on sleep: a meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev, 9(1), 41-50. 56. Ferracioli-Oda, E., Qawasmi, A., & Bloch, M. H. (2013). Meta-Analysis: Melatonin for the Treatment of Primary Sleep Disorders. PLoS One, 8(5), e63773. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.006377357. Inagawa, K., Hiraoka, T., Kohda, T., Yamadera, W., & Takahashi, M. (2006). Subjective effects of glycine ingestion before bedtime on sleep quality. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 4(1), 75-77. doi:10.1111/j.1479-8425.2006.00193.x58. Bannai, M., Kawai, N., Ono, K., Nakahara, K., & Murakami, N. (2012). The Effects of Glycine on Subjective Daytime Performance in Partially Sleep-Restricted Healthy Volunteers. Front Neurol, 3, 61. doi:10.3389/fneur.2012.0006159. Yamadera, W., Inagawa, K., Chiba, S., Bannai, M., Takahashi, M., & Nakayama, K. (2007). Glycine ingestion improves subjective sleep quality in human volunteers, correlating with polysomnographic changes. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 5(2), 126-131. doi:10.1111/j.1479-8425.2007.00262.x60. Tuli, H. S., Kashyap, D., Sharma, A. K., & Sandhu, S. S. (2015). Molecular aspects of melatonin (MLT)-mediated therapeutic effects. Life Sci, 135, 147-157. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2015.06.00461. Herxheimer, A., & Petrie, K. J. (2002). Melatonin for the prevention and treatment of jet lag. Cochrane Database Syst Rev(2), Cd001520. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd00152062. Deng, X., Song, Y., Manson, J. E., Signorello, L. B., Zhang, S. M., Shrubsole, M. J., . . . Dai, Q. (2013). Magnesium, vitamin D status and mortality: results from US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001 to 2006 and NHANES III. BMC Med, 11(1), 187. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-18763. Murck, H., & Steiger, A. (1998). Mg2+ reduces ACTH secretion and enhances spindle power without changing delta power during sleep in men -- possible therapeutic implications. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 137(3), 247-252. 64. Nielsen, F. H., Johnson, L. K., & Zeng, H. (2010). Magnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality sleep. Magnes Res, 23(4), 158-168. doi:10.1684/mrh.2010.0220
Some suggested that the lithium would turn me into a zombie, recalling the complaints of psychiatric patients. But at 5mg elemental lithium x 200 pills, I’d have to eat 20 to get up to a single clinical dose (a psychiatric dose might be 500mg of lithium carbonate, which translates to ~100mg elemental), so I’m not worried about overdosing. To test this, I took on day 1 & 2 no less than 4 pills/20mg as an attack dose; I didn’t notice any large change in emotional affect or energy levels. And it may’ve helped my motivation (though I am also trying out the tyrosine).
A key ingredient of Noehr’s chemical “stack” is a stronger racetam called Phenylpiracetam. He adds a handful of other compounds considered to be mild cognitive enhancers. One supplement, L-theanine, a natural constituent in green tea, is claimed to neutralise the jittery side-effects of caffeine. Another supplement, choline, is said to be important for experiencing the full effects of racetams. Each nootropic is distinct and there can be a lot of variation in effect from person to person, says Lawler. Users semi-annonymously compare stacks and get advice from forums on sites such as Reddit. Noehr, who buys his powder in bulk and makes his own capsules, has been tweaking chemicals and quantities for about five years accumulating more than two dozens of jars of substances along the way. He says he meticulously researches anything he tries, buys only from trusted suppliers and even blind-tests the effects (he gets his fiancée to hand him either a real or inactive capsule).
But when aficionados talk about nootropics, they usually refer to substances that have supposedly few side effects and low toxicity. Most often they mean piracetam, which Giurgea first synthesized in 1964 and which is approved for therapeutic use in dozens of countries for use in adults and the elderly. Not so in the United States, however, where officially it can be sold only for research purposes.

For example, a study published in the journal Psychopharmacology in 2000 found that ginkgo improved attention. A 2001 study in the journal Human Psychopharmacology suggested that it improves memory. Nevertheless, in a review of studies on ginkgo in healthy people, researchers found no good evidence that it improved mental abilities, according to a 2002 report in Psychopharmacology Bulletin.
Notice that poor diet is not on the list. They recommend active treatment of hypertension, more childhood education, exercise, maintaining social engagement, reducing smoking, and management of hearing loss, depression, diabetes, and obesity. They do not recommend specific dietary interventions or supplements. They estimate that lifestyle interventions “might have the potential to delay or prevent a third of dementia cases.”
As mentioned above, eating foods that are rich in indigestible fibre such as vegetables and fruits, as well as eating good fats that are found in grass-fed butter, nuts and seeds, olive oil, coconut oil and avocado, provide bacteria with prebiotics that help to produce the ‘friendly’ short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate. Avoiding processed foods that contain calcium propionate, which lead to higher levels of propionic acid - the not so friendly short-chain fatty acid - is also another key strategy to support the gut-brain link.

The Neurohacker Collective is a group of scientists, academics, and creatives who, among other things, sell nootropics. One of its premier products is Qualia Original Stack (OS), which has 41 ingredients. The large print says it improves focus, mood, and energy within 30 minutes and “supports long-term brain health.” A 22-dose supply costs $129. Such stacks operate on the idea that synergies among ingredients yield additional benefits.


[…] 2. Blueberries: Also called “brainberries” by Dr. Steven Platt, MD author of Superfoods Rx: Fourteen Foods Proven to Change Your Life, blueberries have one of the highest antioxidant capacities of all fruits and vegetables and are known to improve memory and cognitive function. They have memory-protecting properties and have even been associated with the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. Add some blueberries to your breakfast and you may not need to check that to-do list several times throughout the day. Also Read The 7 Best Brain Boosting Supplements […]
Common issues such as poor sleep during pregnancy and sleep deprivation following the birth can often heighten cravings for stimulants and sugary foods, which may seem like a good option for quick sources of energy, however, these foods can often cause further issues with energy and lead to fatigue and low mood. Eating foods that are high in refined sugar and refined grains such as commercial white bread, pastries, cakes and biscuits, give us an unsustainable source of energy. The brain is a very metabolically active organ; despite it only being 7% of the body’s weight, it can take up to 20% of the body’s metabolic needs (2), meaning that it is very energy hungry. This is why it is important to nourish the brain with foods that are nutrient rich, providing the body the building blocks to produce neurotransmitters, as well as a sustainable source of energy. The best options are fresh, unprocessed foods such as wholegrains (brown bread, brown rice, quinoa, rye and oats), pulses, vegetables, good quality sources of protein (meat, poultry and fish) and healthy fats such as those found in olive oil, coconut oil, avocados and oily fish. 

I find this very troubling. The magnesium supplementation was harmful enough to do a lot of cumulative damage over the months involved (I could have done a lot of writing September 2013 - June 2014), but not so blatantly harmful enough as to be noticeable without a randomized blind self-experiment or at least systematic data collection - neither of which are common among people who would be supplementing magnesium I would much prefer it if my magnesium overdose had come with visible harm (such as waking up in the middle of the night after a nightmare soaked in sweat), since then I’d know quickly and surely, as would anyone else taking magnesium. But the harm I observed in my data? For all I know, that could be affecting every user of magnesium supplements! How would we know otherwise?
These brain enhancers allow users to go without sleep for extended periods of time. But in the long-term, insomnia is a hazardous side effect, not a so-called benefit. Lack of sleep is extremely detrimental to your brain health and function. It’s during sleep that your brain consolidates memories, cleans away toxins, repairs itself, and creates new brain cells. (52, 53, 54, 55)
We can read off the results from the table or graph: the nicotine days average 1.1% higher, for an effect size of 0.24; however, the 95% credible interval (equivalent of confidence interval) goes all the way from 0.93 to -0.44, so we cannot exclude 0 effect and certainly not claim confidence the effect size must be >0.1. Specifically, the analysis gives a 66% chance that the effect size is >0.1. (One might wonder if any increase is due purely to a training effect - getting better at DNB. Probably not26.)

Clarke and Sokoloff (1998) remarked that although [a] common view equates concentrated mental effort with mental work…there appears to be no increased energy utilization by the brain during such processes (p. 664), and …the areas that participate in the processes of such reasoning represent too small a fraction of the brain for changes in their functional and metabolic activities to be reflected in the energy metabolism of the brain… (p. 675).


By the way, since I’ll throw around the term a few more times in this article, I should probably clarify what an adaptogen actually is. The actual name adaptogen gives some hint as to what these fascinating compounds do: they help you to adapt, specifically by stimulating a physiological adaptive response to some mild, hormesis-like stressor. A process known as general adaptation syndrome (GAS) was first described by the 20th-century physician and organic chemist Hans Selye, who defined GAS as the body’s response to the demands placed upon it. When these demands are excessive and consistent, it can result in the common deleterious symptoms now associated with long-term exposure to chronic stress. GAS is comprised of an alarm stage (characterized by a burst of energy), a resistance stage (characterized by resistance or adaptation to the stressor), and – in the case of excessive and chronic stress – an exhaustion stage (characterized by energy depletion). Adaptogens are plant-derived compounds capable of modulating these phases of GAS by either downregulating stress reactions in the alarm phase or inhibiting the onset of the exhaustion phase, thus providing some degree of protection against damage from stress.
Rather than cause addiction, the nootropic choline may help to treat this illness. Choline helps to increase dopamine levels. In cocaine users, for instance, dopamine levels are lowered. Taking choline potentially helps those recovering from cocaine abuse to feel better and experience fewer cravings. Research in this area is limited, but it is promising.[9]
There are a variety of substances to get magnesium from. Considerable enthusiasm for the new compound magnesium l-threonate was stirred by 2 small animal rat studies finding that magnesium l-threonate was able to increase magnesium levels in the brain and improve learning/memory tasks. (There are no published human trials as of October 2015, and evidence of publication bias, which I take as evidence against there being large effects in humans.) Animal studies mean very little, of course (see the appendix), but I thought it’d be interesting to try using l-threonate, so I bought the $30 Life Extension Neuro-Mag Magnesium L-Threonate with Calcium and Vitamin D3 (205g), which according to the LEF product page works out to ~60g of Magtein™ magnesium L-threonate and ~4.31g elemental magnesium inasmuch as LEF claims 2000mg of threonate powder provides 144mg elemental magnesium or a 14:1 ratio. (I don’t need the calcium or vitamin D3, but this was the only magnesium l-threonate on Amazon.) Experiment-wise, I’ll probably look at sleep metrics and Mnemosyne performance; I put off designing a blind self-experiment until after trying some.
When asked if there’s a discrepancy between Qualia’s claims and that disclaimer, Dr. Stickler points out that products such as OS aren’t promising to treat or cure any diseases. That’s the line these companies can’t cross. They can claim their product makes you smarter or more focused without data from clinical trials, but they can’t claim their pill treats traumatic brain injury, ADHD, or Alzheimer’s.

Of course, work pressure, post-Christmas financial constraints and time away from family and friends can make us all feel low, however, this can happen on any date depending on our own personal circumstances. Rather than taking a ‘duvet day’ to bail out of commitments on Blue Monday, as the media is suggesting, why not take a more positive stance and engage in some activities that are tried and tested tools to help support better mood? After all, as the evidence suggests, the date or day of the week is unlikely to change these worries for the majority of us. For example, doing some exercise and eating a healthy meal with good company are both scientifically proven to support our mental wellbeing. Low-intensity exercise such as walking sustained over an extended period can help release proteins called neurotrophic factors that improve brain function and support mood, and nutrients such as B12 and Omega 3, are just two of many that have been shown to improve symptoms associated to depression. Our Nutrition Solutions offers more information on nutrition for depression if you want to know more about practical actions you can take yourself through nutrition to prevent or tackle depression.
Our #5 pick is BriteSmart which has a long list of ingredients, which look good on the bottle, but when we actually visited each one, we were left wondering about why some of them had been included. We did like the fact that it contained Vinpocetine and Huperzine A. We felt that this was a good product, but missing some key ingredients such as a supportive vitamin blend.
Many people prefer the privacy and convenience of ordering brain boosting supplements online and having them delivered right to the front door. At Smart Pill Guide, we have made the process easier, so you can place your order directly through our website with your major credit card or PayPal. Our website is secure, so your personal information is protected and all orders are completely confidential.
She reveals where she went astray. In a lecture she gave, she lamented the failure of science to offer a cure for Alzheimer’s or even an effective treatment. Someone in the audience asked, “How about olive oil?” She realized she didn’t know anything about the effects of nutrition on Alzheimer’s. She seems to have assumed that diet must be crucially important, and for some reason instead of studying conventional nutrition science, she got a degree in Holistic Nutrition. She bills herself as a certified Integrative Nutritionist and holistic healthcare practitioner. I couldn’t find where she studied, but Stephen Barrett has criticized the Institute for Integrative Nutrition on Quackwatch. Its training is not based on scientific nutrition. It seems most programs in Integrative Nutrition are 6- to 8-month correspondence courses with no prerequisites. I wonder what she was taught.
Bought 5,000 IU soft-gels of Vitamin D-334 (Examine.com; FDA adverse events) because I was feeling very apathetic in January 2011 and not getting much done, even slacking on regular habits like Mnemosyne spaced repetition review or dual n-back or my Wikipedia watchlist. Introspecting, I was reminded of depression & dysthymia & seasonal affective disorder.

Nuts and seeds. Nuts and seeds are good sources of vitamin E, says Pratt, explaining that higher levels of vitamin E correspond with less cognitive decline as you get older. Add an ounce a day of walnuts, hazelnuts, Brazil nuts, filberts, almonds, cashews, peanuts, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, flax seed, and unhydrogenated nut butters such as peanut butter, almond butter, and tahini. Raw or roasted doesn't matter, although if you're on a sodium-restricted diet, buy unsalted nuts.
The above are all reasons to expect that even if I do excellent single-subject design self-experiments, there will still be the old problem of internal validity versus external validity: an experiment may be wrong or erroneous or unlucky in some way (lack of internal validity) or be right but not matter to anyone else (lack of external validity). For example, alcohol makes me sad & depressed; I could run the perfect blind randomized experiment for hundreds of trials and be extremely sure that alcohol makes me less happy, but would that prove that alcohol makes everyone sad or unhappy? Of course not, and as far as I know, for a lot of people alcohol has the opposite effect. So my hypothetical alcohol experiment might have tremendous internal validity (it does prove that I am sadder after inebriating), and zero external validity (someone who has never tried alcohol learns nothing about whether they will be depressed after imbibing). Keep this in mind if you are minded to take the experiments too seriously.
I take my piracetam in the form of capped pills consisting (in descending order) of piracetam, choline bitartrate, anhydrous caffeine, and l-tyrosine. On 8 December 2012, I happened to run out of them and couldn’t fetch more from my stock until 27 December. This forms a sort of (non-randomized, non-blind) short natural experiment: did my daily 1-5 mood/productivity ratings fall during 8-27 December compared to November 2012 & January 2013? The graphed data29 suggests to me a decline:
For the moment, people looking for that particular quick fix have a limited choice of meds. But given the amount of money and research hours being spent on developing drugs to treat cognitive decline, Provigil and Adderall are likely to be joined by a bigger pharmacopoeia. Among the drugs in the pipeline are ampakines, which target a type of glutamate receptor in the brain; it is hoped that they may stem the memory loss associated with diseases like Alzheimer's. But ampakines may also give healthy people a palpable cognitive boost. A 2007 study of 16 healthy elderly volunteers found that 500mg of one particular ampakine "unequivocally" improved short-term memory, though it appeared to detract from episodic memory - the recall of past events. Another class of drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors, which are already being used with some success to treat Alzheimer's patients, have also shown promise as neuroenhancers. In one study the drug donepezil strengthened the performance of pilots on flight simulators; in another, of 30 healthy young male volunteers, it improved verbal and visual episodic memory. Several pharmaceutical companies are working on drugs that target nicotine receptors in the brain in the hope that they can replicate the cognitive uptick that smokers get from cigarettes.
Why? Just think for a moment how much visual, auditory, and sensory information you’re exposed to and required to process every day.  From constant background sounds to big city noise pollution, the phone ringing, artificial lighting, chemical-laden air fresheners circulating smells of fresh linen, electromagnetic fields piercing through your brain, the new procedure you have to learn at work, and a host of other sensory stimuli, the human brain has to organize and deal with this information all while keeping you upright and going. Although the brain has incredible skills and unimaginable capabilities, modern living creates unprecedented stress and sensory overload from all of the information that must be processed every single day.  Sensory overload has even been shown to cause irritability, anxiety, mood swings, depression, ADHD, fibromyalgia, PTSD and chronic fatigue syndrome. The ability of your brain to continue learning, processing, and forming new neural connections is key to maintaining optimal brain health and longevity.

Whole grains, which you digest slowly, provide fuel for your brain. (Although your brain accounts for only 3 percent of your total body weight, it uses 20 percent of energy.) Rich sources include brown rice, whole wheat bread, quinoa, bran flakes, oats, and barley. According to Science Daily, brain food containing whole grains can boost cardiovascular health, which in turn enhances the flow of blood to the brain. They contain more intact nutrients than processed white flour, including vitamin E, antioxidants, and fiber. When these work together to increase blood flow, the integrity of brain cells is better preserved. To keep your brain sharp, go beyond your diet and incorporate these healthy brain-boosting habits into your routine.
Began double-blind trial. Today I took one pill blindly at 1:53 PM. at the end of the day when I have written down my impressions and guess whether it was one of the Adderall pills, then I can look in the baggy and count and see whether it was. there are many other procedures one can take to blind oneself (have an accomplice mix up a sequence of pills and record what the sequence was; don’t count & see but blindly take a photograph of the pill each day, etc.) Around 3, I begin to wonder whether it was Adderall because I am arguing more than usual on IRC and my heart rate seems a bit high just sitting down. 6 PM: I’ve started to think it was a placebo. My heart rate is back to normal, I am having difficulty concentrating on long text, and my appetite has shown up for dinner (although I didn’t have lunch, I don’t think I had lunch yesterday and yesterday the hunger didn’t show up until past 7). Productivity wise, it has been a normal day. All in all, I’m not too sure, but I think I’d guess it was Adderall with 40% confidence (another way of saying placebo with 60% confidence). When I go to examine the baggie at 8:20 PM, I find out… it was an Adderall pill after all. Oh dear. One little strike against Adderall that I guessed wrong. It may be that the problem is that I am intrinsically a little worse today (normal variation? come down from Adderall?).
Its high levels of collagen help reduce intestinal inflammation, and healing amino acids like proline and glycine keep your immune system functioning properly and help improve memory. Bone broth is what I prescribe most frequently to my patients because it truly helps heal your body from the inside out. You’ll also be surprised at how simple and economical it is to make at home with my Beef Bone Broth Recipe.
It is not because of the few thousand francs which would have to be spent to put a roof [!] over the third-class carriages or to upholster the third-class seats that some company or other has open carriages with wooden benches. What the company is trying to do is to prevent the passengers who can pay the second class fare from traveling third class; it hits the poor, not because it wants to hurt them, but to frighten the rich. And it is again for the same reason that the companies, having proved almost cruel to the third-class passengers and mean to the second-class ones, become lavish in dealing with first-class passengers. Having refused the poor what is necessary, they give the rich what is superfluous.
It is not because of the few thousand francs which would have to be spent to put a roof [!] over the third-class carriages or to upholster the third-class seats that some company or other has open carriages with wooden benches. What the company is trying to do is to prevent the passengers who can pay the second class fare from traveling third class; it hits the poor, not because it wants to hurt them, but to frighten the rich. And it is again for the same reason that the companies, having proved almost cruel to the third-class passengers and mean to the second-class ones, become lavish in dealing with first-class passengers. Having refused the poor what is necessary, they give the rich what is superfluous.
The important factors seem to be: #1/MR6 (Creativity.self.rating, Time.Bitcoin, Time.Backups, Time.Blackmarkets, Gwern.net.linecount.log), #2/MR1 (Time.PDF, Time.Stats), #7/MR7 (Time.Writing, Time.Sysadmin, Time.Programming, Gwern.net.patches.log), and #8/MR8 (Time.States, Time.SRS, Time.Sysadmin, Time.Backups, Time.Blackmarkets). The rest seem to be time-wasting or reflect dual n-back/DNB usage (which is not relevant in the LLLT time period).
As a result of her years of research in this area, Dr. Lisa proposes a variety of foods that lead to better cognitive functioning and those which, in contrast, minimize cognitive functioning. "The best four foods one can consume to boost brain power are fish, dark leafy green veggies, berries, and water," she explains. And the worst? "Fast food, processed foods and poor quality meat." 
After many years recruiting teens from across the city to join us for a year of culinary adventures, we’re relying on the city’s network of talented youth service providers to fill the gap and cultivate the next generation of smart, resilient youth leaders. While this isn’t where we wanted to be, we’re reaching for gratitude and sharing KUDOS one last time.
According to the official website, Cognizin is based on Citicoline, which is a highly beneficial nutrient that’s useful for assisting certain brain functions that are related to mental focus and cognitive processing. What’s more, it’s shown to improve your brain’s metabolism regarding the use of acetylcholine, which is an important neurotransmitter involved in the storage and processing of memory.
Took pill around 6 PM; I had a very long drive to and from an airport ahead of me, ideal for Adderall. In case it was Adderall, I chewed up the pill - by making it absorb faster, more of the effect would be there when I needed it, during driving, and not lingering in my system past midnight. Was it? I didn’t notice any change in my pulse, I yawned several times on the way back, my conversation was not more voluminous than usual. I did stay up later than usual, but that’s fully explained by walking to get ice cream. All in all, my best guess was that the pill was placebo, and I feel fairly confident but not hugely confident that it was placebo. I’d give it ~70%. And checking the next morning… I was right! Finally.
After informally testing various formulas of Qualia OS on themselves and friends, Collective founders did an unblinded pilot study with nine volunteers that Dr. Stickler says showed significant benefits in cognitive function and stress response in eight of the subjects. Still, he admits this isn’t airtight scientific proof that the product works. He says the Collective is hoping to do a placebo-controlled study, but in the meantime, he’s confident the stack works because of the results he’s seen in patients.
When many of us think of memory enhancers, we think of ginkgo biloba, the herb that now generates more than $240 million in sales a year worldwide. The October 22-29, 1997 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association reported that Alzheimer's patients who took 120 mg of ginkgo showed small improvements in tests designed to measure mental performance.
Even the best of today’s nootropics only just barely scratch the surface. You might say that we are in the “Nokia 1100” phase of taking nootropics, and as better tools and more data come along, the leading thinkers in the space see a powerful future. For example, they are already beginning to look past biochemistry to the epigenome. Not only is the epigenome the code that runs much of your native biochemistry, we now know that experiences in life can be recorded in your epigenome and then passed onto future generations. There is every reason to believe that you are currently running epigenetic code that you inherited from your great-grandmother’s life experiences. And there is every reason to believe that the epigenome can be hacked – that the nootropics of the future can not only support and enhance our biochemistry, but can permanently change the epigenetic code that drives that biochemistry and that we pass onto our children.
×